The best churches get a page to themselves
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An Augustinian convent was founded here in 1250, with work on the convent and the first church finishing in 1292. Brunelleschi was asked to design a new church in 1434, but building did not begin until 1444, two years before his death. Part of the delay was down to people refusing to sell their houses to make way for a new piazza facing the Arno, which was part of Brunelleschi's original plan. There was also a disagreement amongst the members of the works committee about the number of doors in the facade. The church was unusual for being almost wholly financed by the Florentine government, a fact supposedly explained by their need to have a controlling influence in an area they suspected could harbour an uprising, the district being dominated by the artisan class.
Building continued slowly for most of the 15th Century, under the direction of Antonio Manetti and others, but was sped by a fire which destroyed most the old church, then still in use (see Feast day performances below). The later work included the dome and inner façade, to designs by Salvi d'Andrea. Suppressed by Napoleon in 1808, much of the larger complex is now government offices, with the Augustinians still responsible for the church and its immediate buildings.
The façade is from 1792 and was decorated with painted architectural detailing (visible in the print and the old black and white photo see far below) which was removed during late 20th Century restoration work. The coats of arms over the windows down the sides are those of the families whose chapels are the other side of the windows.
Big and serene and very Brunelleschi-ish, if a little spoilt by the slightly jarring later big baldacchino (see below right). If you can ignore it this is Brunelleschi at his best - less spoiled and more solemn than San Lorenzo. It's a Latin cross with a dome over the crossing, thankfully left unfrescoed. The chunky columns are reflected by similar pilasters in the walls. The columns capitals, like at San Lorenzo, have blocks above them, called pulvins, from which the arches spring that much higher. There are 39 side chapels, those in the transept show a striking uniformity of size and design, probably due to the friars, or the administrative operai, attempting to impose a degree of control on the chaos and ambitions of private chapels. Uccello is buried here.
This church has thirty-eight altars, almost all with painted altarpieces - the best have been cleaned and are almost all in the transept and behind the baldacchino, this being where the most prestigious local families could afford to have chapels. Many also have impressive painted altar frontals, which aren't something you see everyday. The altarpieces facing each other over the first altar on each side are bright and bearable works by Pier Francesco Foschi, a Resurrection and an Immaculate Conception. (There is also a Transfiguration by him in the right transept.) He was a talented pupil of Andrea del Sarto, now little studied. His reputation may have suffered from Vasari ignoring him, which could be down to his being a contemporary and Vasari resenting him for getting commissions he thought he should've won himself. There are unspecial Michelangelo sculpture copies in the next two facing across the nave.
The next three on the left are 17th century and missable but the third is by Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio and Michele Tosini of the Madonna and Child with Saint Anne and Saints Thomas Aquinas, Peter Martyr, Domenico Vincent Ferrer, Mary Magdalene and Catherine which has charm, which the next two, after the door, lack.
As you turn into the left transept facing you are two admirable altarpieces by Agnolo and Donnino del Mazziere, a Madonna and Child with Angels and Saints Bartholomew and Nicholas and a Trinity with Saints Mary Magdalene and Catherine. The brothers were formerly little known beyond their works here, which includes the altar frontal in the chapel to your left as you face these two, and works by them used to be just ascribed to the Master of Santo Spirito. Above this frontal is a calm Madonna and Child with Saints John the Evangelist, Lawrence, Stephen and Bernard by Raffaellino del Garbo (1505).
Next is the impressive sculptural Capella
Corbinelli by Sansovino, and then (after a second Corbinelli Chapel, with
an altarpiece by Cosimo Rosselli) there's the Saint Monica
Altarpiece, long given to Botticini (and the label here still says so)
it is now thought by many to be by Verrocchio. It is an unusual
composition with a company of strikingly darkly robbed nuns. Next along,
to your right, is the Ubertini Chapel with another Mazziere brothers altarpiece, a
Madonna and Child between Saints John the Evangelist and Bartholomew,
which has a Bellini-like serenity and very characterful faces.
Turning into the right transept, the second
chapel along is the Nerli, containing a glowing Fillippino Lippi Madonna
and Child with Saints (The Nerli Altarpiece) (see right) with its slightly drugged-looking Madonna
and Jesus playing with the young John the Baptist. The donor Tanai de'
Nerli and his wife Nanna are seen in the foregound. In the background
on the right Nerli is seen in a red cloak arriving at his palazzo with the Porta San
Frediano visible behind. To the left of this chapel is the Nasi chapel, containing a
dark but decent copy of Perugino's Vision of St Bernard made by Felice Ficherelli.
The original is in Munich, as is The
Pieta with Saints John the Baptist, John the Evangelist, Mary Magdalen and
James, which Raffaellino del Garbo painted for this chapel around
Oltrarno :: Fiesole